Geomatics, Landmanagement and Landscape
Geomatics, Landmanagement and Landscape
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Geomatics, Landmanagement and Landscape, Issue 2/2017

Andriy Babushka, Khrystyna Burshtynska, Yuliya Denys

Classification of forests in the Precarpathian region using QuickBird-2 high resolution satellite image

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.7


Based on the study of literature on the classification of forests using high resolution space images it was established that the separation of classes and classes close to the spectral brightness can not be identified with high accuracy. Classification using maximum likelihood algorithm, which generally gives better results compared with algorithms of spectral distance or Mahalanobis distance, does not lead to the definition of areas with a high probability. Therefore, the article examines a method of forest classification by post-processing. Experimental studies were carried out using an satellite image of the forested area of the Precarpathian region, obtained from QuickBird-2 (June 2010). Data collected during field research were used as verification data to determine areas of different objects. The controlled classification has been performed using the method of the maximum likelihood, size of signatures for 8 classes were selected from 100 to 400 points. For these classes a matrix of classes separation was calculated, and a significant correlation between next classes was found: young conifer plantings and pine and mixed forest, and deciduous young plantings and deciduous forest. Post-processing significantly improves the reliability of determination of area, and the procedure consists in assigning to all pixel of the selected neighbourhood brightness of most points, although reliability of determination of area depends on the size of the area. Accuracy of determination of areas are from 92 to 99%.

Stanisław Bacior, Jacek Gniadek, Izabela Piech, Joanna Stachowicz

Cycle paths design based on aerial laser scan data

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.21


Development of cycle routes in Poland is a frequently discussed topic. This type of infrastructure may be designed using a variety of methods. Manual planning of new cycle paths based on aerial laser scan data is relatively quick and also precise. The ALS technique can provide the required accuracy of design map in terms of elevation measurements. It is worth noting that only a few years ago studies indicated that elevation measurements were less accurate when using this particular technique [Hejmanowska, Warchoł 2010]. The designer has a detailed insight into the studied area. He may easily assess the terrain and choose the optimal location for the given object. Planning the route course and its elevation variability is simple when using a Digital Terrain Model. The first stage of the present study analyses the rules that apply to bicycle route design and the area covered by the study. The course of the new cycle path was planned in such a way as to connect the most important places in towns as well as places of tourist interest. The resultant route is 1.8 km long and runs along the main road. Development of DTM and its visualizations were performed mainly on the basis of two point clouds provided by the Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation Center. The initial works were performed in MicroStation PowerDraft V8i software. In the next stage, a 3D visualization of the model was generated with the use of Surfer 11 program. Based on that, a longitudinal profile of the route was created.

Henryk Bryś, Marek Woźniak

Autonomous monitoring system of girders’ deflection in large hall Buildings

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.37


Systematic climate change can may bring about abnormally heavy snowfall in wintertime, which means that roofs in exposition, municipal, industrial halls and sports arenas may be excessively and destructively loaded [Kłosek and Prószyński 2008]. Ten years have passed since the greatest construction disasters in the EU countries happened, when a whole series of grave accidents took place due to snow and ice overload of roofs in large halls. These events emphasize the need to introduce an early warning system to prevent that kind of risk. A geodetic system that monitors selected parts of structure can warn about a danger related to accumulation of masses of snow and about a degree of deflections in a building structure. The article presents the newest original measuring Multi-Disto Monitoring System (MDMS) for collecting information on current state of geometric deformation of steel or ferroconcrete girders supporting large hall roofs.


Katarzyna Cegielska, Dawid Kudas, Renata Różycka-Czas, Tomasz Salata, Marta Szylar

The analysis of Land Cover macrostructure in the suburban area of Krakow

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.47


The suburban areas are lands under strong anthropogenic pressure which results in their significant transformation. Identifying the direction of changes and their intensity is the basis of research based on the analysis of land use and land cover. The study involved the analysis of land cover in the area of suburban zone of the city of Krakow based on the vector geodata available in the European Environment Agency database (Urban Atlas download service). Geographic data were classified according to various categories of coverage. The area was divided into evaluation clusters that included covering buffer zones with the given parameters according to the distance from the city: zones 0–5 km, 5–10 km, 10–15 km and 15–20 km. All analyzes were performed by means of the QGIS software using geoprocessing tools and additional ones of spatial statistics (among other things Group Stats). The percentage of each category of coverage in relation to the total area was made for each of the separate buffer zones’ statements. The theory of changing the structure of coverage categories along with diverging from the city according to the diagram of reducing participation of heavily anthropogenic areas to those less exposed to it was confirmed on the basis of this analysis.

Ewa Głowienka, Beata Hejmanowska, Krystyna Michałowska, Agnieszka Pękala

Analysis of multitemporal changes in the environment using GIS and remote sensing in the aspect of construcion projects

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.61


Modern changes of environment are the result of many factors, of which anthropogenic activities and the development of infrastructure play the leading role in environmental, morphometric changes. The dynamics of expansion of construction lands, which until recently have changed only as a result of natural factors, makes it invariably important to analyse time changes and forecast potential effects of construction projects on the environment. A good source of information about changes, for example the course of rivers, hydrological conditions, diversity of vegetation in the areas of investment, are cartographic sources, in particular GIS techniques, satellite images, and aerial photographs. Proper assessing of the territory using GIS techniques may allow constructing roads not only with less damage to the environment and human health, but also avoiding technical problems, such as low bearing capacity of soils. The main objective of the study is to evaluate multitemporal changes of the environment in the course of the ongoing construction project, which is the construction of the A4 motorway in its Rzeszów Wschód – Jarosław Zachód section, in the area of the Wierzbna junction. The analysis was carried out on the basis of Landsat satellite images recorded in two different investment periods of the tested object: in 2006 – prior to the start of construction works, in 2015 – in the course of the ongoing construction works. In addition, the analysis of the obtained Landsat multitemporal satellite images made it possible to examine the morphology of the substrate conditions of river valleys of the San, Wislok, and Mleczka.


Bianka Godlewska-Dzioboń, Robert Wojciech Włodarczyk

The effect of changes in the socio-economic development of the Podhale region

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.71


The quantitative and qualitative dimension of infrastructure determines the pace and level of socio-economic development. Infrastructure investments are of a technical nature, social or institutional. Elements of infrastructure identify the possibilities of developing economic initiatives and attracting external capital, modernizing production growth, including agriculture, living conditions of its inhabitants, and shaping the multifunctional and sustainable development of counties. The principal purpose of the article is to present a level of technical and social infrastructure development in the districts of Nowy Targ and Tatry, and the evaluation of their impact on the social, and economic development of the Podhale region. This article presents the literature review, research methodology, socio-economic situation of Podhale, as well as results of empirical analysis on infrastructure potential and impact on the social and economic development of the Podhale region.


Marcin Jakimiak, Przemysław Leń

Analysis of impact of new road projects on creating areas excuded from agricultural production

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.83


Road transport is a very important factor, constituting an important element of the country’s economy and of the labor market. The good quality of international connections creates possibilities of faster and safer traffic on the roads, in passenger and freight transport. It increases the traffic flow by separating local traffic from international one for increased comfort and driving safety. It should be noted, however, that linear development projects, apart from undisputed economic capacity benefits in general, have a negative impact on the shaping of spatial structure of rural areas. Development projects lead to division of land into smaller pieces, scattering of farms on both sides of the route, which increases fragmentation and dispersal of land farms. The study presents the process of creating areas excluded from agricultural production that accompanies construction of new roads in Poland. Based on a study of four road construction projects, the paper presents the cost of acquisition of remnants and the area of land that has been set aside. The possibility of restoring these lands to agricultural production was also analyzed.


Karol Król, Barbara Prus

Monitoring the use of the internet application for Tomice municipality local plan of spatial development

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.91


Diverse visualizations of environmental data, infographics, maps and Internet services can be information sources not only for their recipients, but also for their creators. That information can come from the monitoring of users’ activity, which can be carried out in an automated way by means of Internet applications. Results for the monitoring of the Internet application presenting the local plan of spatial development of Tomice municipality are presented in the paper. From measuring their users’ activity, it can be concluded that despite the increased number of visits from outside Poland’s borders, the service remains of greatest interest to local communities. The vast majority of recorded visits came from the adjacent areas or these located near the municipality itself.


Agnieszka Paciorek, Wojciech Wilkowski

Principles of land value estimation in Consolidation proceedings in Poland

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.99


The subject of the study was the principles of land estimation used for the purpose of consolidation proceedings, as they are applied in Poland. The work examines the legal conditions relating to the estimation of land for the purposes of consolidation. Documents prepared in the years 2005–2017 concerning land estimation (resolutions of the consolidation participants, and protocols from the value estimates) have been collected for 41 consolidated sites, located in 28 districts of 11 voivodships (regions). A survey was conducted among the surveyors-designers of the consolidation proceedings, consisting of 19 questions. In the current year, the co-author of the present article was present at meetings of consolidation proceedings’ participants, convened in order to determine the rules for estimating land value on two sites located in different regions, and the material she collected during those meetings was used in the article. The collected data were subjected to an analysis, which showed that within Poland there is no homogeneity in the method of estimating land value for the purpose of consolidation proceedings, and that the method used to determine the value of land, taking into account the 1-hectare estimated rate, and the price of 1dt of rye grain, according to the provisions of the agricultural tax, is incompatible with the principles for the valuation of agricultural real estate, as specified in the law on real estate management.


Magda Pluta, Thomas Kringlebotn Thiis

Assessment of the influence of atmospheric intensity on the wooden façade of the building by visualization method

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.115


3D visualization is one of the forms of presentation of spatial phenomena, which, thanks to the development of new technologies of acquiring, modeling and providing spatial information, is one of the most popular methods of presenting real objects in the virtual world. Practice shows that 3D visualization is increasingly being used by different entities to present research results in 3D form, thereby ensuring better readability of the papers. The paper describes the methodology of 3D visualization of the influence of atmospheric conditions on wooden facades of a school building. Methods of obtaining data for the purpose of creating a 3D model of a research object, processing vector and raster data, and rendering the final animation were described. The results of the study show that the use of 3D visualization as a form of presenting research results enables accurate estimation of the intensity of atmospheric conditions on the vertical elevation, taking into account the exact geometry of the research object.


Elżbieta Szafranko

Evaluation of local and supralocal roles of parks in the urban spatial setting: a case study of central park in Olsztyn

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.123


Green areas, increasingly often designed among buildings, play an important role in any agglomeration. Parks can performvarious functions. Most often, they serve as greenery, which seems to be in an acute shortage in urbanised areas. In addition, parks inscribe themselves into transportation networks, including footpaths, bikeways and streets. They can be used as venues for cultural or artistic events, but also as recreational and educational areas. The influence of adopted solutions can have a broader or narrower scope. When making a decision to implement a particular solution, it is advisable to analyse various aspects of a planned investment project. This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of the role of parks in urban settings.


Małgorzata Zofia Wilczkiewicz

FreshKills park (Staten Island, NY) as an example of a polluted area’s transformation into a public space

DOI: 10.15576/GLL/2017.2.133


Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of the New York City. The borough of Staten Island differs from the other districts for being much more rural, agricultural and full of green areas. The picturesque landscape of the meadows named Fresh Kills is located in the middle of the Island. The name ‘Fresh Kills’ comes from the landfill’s location, along the banks of the Dutch name Fresh Kills estuary, in Western Staten Island. Since 1947, this place has been used as a garbage dump for the New York City metropolitan area. During the next fifty years, this area formed an artificial mound of waste occupying a surface of 2200 acres (890 ha). In 2003, the authorities of the City of New York decided to close the landfill and transform the Fresh Kill landfill into a recreational park, for future generation to use. Because of a very complicated system of recuperation, the park’s opening is scheduled for 2030. However, some of the parts of the Park are open to the public now. After completion, the Fresh Kills Park will be the largest park in New York City. It will be three times bigger than Central Park.


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